Doped Jet Fuel Sulfur Content (FSC) Geoengineering
Plan to geoengineer contrails with biofuels and sulfur-doped jet fuel proposed (the Two-Fuels in One Tank solution)
Applying high FSCs [fuel sulfur content] at aviation cruise altitudes combined with ULSJ [ultra-low sulfur jet fuel, aviation biofuel] fuel at lower altitudes result in reduced aviation-induced mortality and increased negative RE compared to the baseline aviation scenario.
(1) use biofuels on takeoff. Create less carbon black dust (soot) around airports, kill less people.
(2) use high-sulfur jet fuel at altitude. Mimic “Pinatubo effect” to do stratospheric sulfur injections for solar radiation management purposes.
Self-levitating soot (photophoretic) carries sulfur into stratosphere, destroys ozone layer, affects rainfall/monsoons worldwide.
Aerosols could be injected into the upper atmosphere to engineer the climate by scattering incident sunlight so as to produce a cooling tendency that may mitigate the risks posed by the accumulation of greenhouse gases. Analysis of climate engineering has focused on sulfate aerosols. Here I examine the possibility that engineered nanoparticles could exploit photophoretic forces, enabling more control over particle distribution and lifetime than is possible with sulfates, perhaps allowing climate engineering to be accomplished with fewer side effects. The use of electrostatic or magnetic materials enables a class of photophoretic forces not found in nature. Photophoretic levitation could loft particles above the stratosphere, reducing their capacity to interfere with ozone chemistry; and, by increasing particle lifetimes, it would reduce the need for continual replenishment of the aerosol. Moreover, particles might be engineered to drift poleward enabling albedo modification to be tailored to counter polar warming while minimizing the impact on equatorial climates. - David Keith, Photophoretic levitation of engineered aerosols for geoengineering
Though airborne, BC (black carbon) is known to dissipate and settle down in a few months under the influence of rain and wind and is unlikely to travel upward of 4 km. However, a group of scientists — including from the Indian Institute of Science and ISRO’s Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre — say they now have evidence of such particles existing up to 18 km into the stratosphere and there are about 10,000 of them in every cubic centimetre.
Given the shape and location of these particles, they argue, it could only derive from emissions from aviation fuel and they pose a problem because these black carbon particles can linger long enough to provide a fertile ground for other chemical reactions that can deplete the ozone layer.
Commercial aviation has been geoengineering the planet for years. Now we understand how. Sulfuric acid rides on carbon black dust into the stratosphere.
Here is how the two-fuel in one tank geoengineering solution works (three patents attached):
United States Patent Application 20130340834 • Inventor: Peter Swann • Assignee: ROLLS-ROYCE PLC
A method includes i) identifying a period of operation corresponding to a fuel supply requirement; ii) determining at least one ambient air condition in which the machine will operate during the period; iii) determining a duration of time in which, whilst in the ambient air condition, it is required to achieve a predetermined vapour trail characteristic; iv) determining a resultant fuel composition for use by the machine in the ambient air condition to achieve the characteristic, where the resultant fuel composition includes at least one of the first and second fuel compositions; v) determining the ratio of at least the first and second fuel compositions required for sufficient resultant fuel composition for the duration of time determined in step iii); and vi) producing a first signal indicative of the ratio of at least the first and second fuel compositions required for the duration of time determined in step iii).
United States Patent 9518965 • Inventor: Peter Swann • Assignee: ROLLS-ROYCE PLC
A fuel system (12) comprising a vapor trail detection sensor (20) configured to generate a first signal (28) which indicates the optical depth of a vapor trail (35). A control unit (40) is provided responsive to the first signal (28) and configured to generate a second signal (80) in dependence upon the first signal (28). The second signal (80) defines a percentage of at least one of a first fuel composition and second fuel composition required to produce a resultant fuel composition. At least one regulator (42) is provided configured to receive and be responsive to the second signal (80) and regulate the percentage of first and second fuel composition required to produce the resultant fuel composition.
Rolls-Royce makes jet engines, thus the need to patent cloud production using dual jet fuel.
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