WMH Timeline

Sounding Rockets Explosive Shells Pound Ionosphere

December 1, 1970 to April 28, 1972 - ARPA Project SECEDE “Observations of the Developement of Striations in Large Barium Ion Clouds”
Contractor: University of Alaska, Geophysical Institute.
Auount of Contract: $283,849.00

Striations develop within large (12-352 kg releases) barium ion clouds in a two-stage process. First the clouds split into sheets commencing at the trailing edge of the cloud. Then distortions or pinching effects within the individual sheets cause the formation of field-aligned raylike structures. In the clouds observed, the individual sheets were 200 m to 1000 m in thickness and were spaced 700 m to 2000 m apart. Quasi-sinusoidal waviness or spatially periodic thickenings exhibited a wavelength typically 700 m to 1000 m.When rod-like structures appeared, these were typically-200 im to 400 m. in diameter and were spaced along the pre-existing sheet at 700 m to 1000 m on centers.

October 15, 1972 - Rocket energy beams create artificial aurora

accelerator intended to send electron beams upward along an L=1.24 magnetic field line was flown from a rocket launched from Kauai, Hawaii

November 1972 - ARPA Project SECEDE II barium cloud releases

May 14, 1973 - NASA Skylab launch knocks out radio communication over Atlantic Ocean

Ionospheric hole affects radio transmission. Mendillo, et al., 1975

November 4, 1974 - High-explosive shaped Barium charges pound ionosphere

Hollow conical liners of barium metal, detonated above 500-km altitude, jets of barium plasma with a range of initial velocity of 8 to 20 km/sec have been created.
Sounding RocketChemical Cannon



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